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What are nanoparticles

wallpapers News 2021-01-25
Nanoparticles refer to particles with a particle size between 1 and 100 nm, and nanoparticles are also called ultrafine particles. It belongs to the category of colloidal particle size. They are located in the transition zone between the clusters of atoms and macroscopic objects, between the microscopic system and the macroscopic system, and are a group composed of a small number of atoms or molecules. Therefore, they are neither a typical microsystem nor a typical macro system. It is foreseeable that nanoparticles should have some novel physical and chemical properties.
Characteristics of nanoparticle structure
Its surface area accounts for a large proportion, and the surface atoms have neither long-range nor short-range amorphous layers. It can be considered that the state of the atoms on the surface of the nanoparticle is closer to the gaseous state, while the atoms inside the particle may be in an orderly arrangement. Even so, due to the small particle size and large surface curvature, high Gilibs pressure is generated inside, which can cause some deformation of the internal structure. The structural characteristics of nanoparticles make it have the following four effects: Volume effect, surface effect, quantum size effect, and macroscopic quantum tunneling effect.
Wide application of nanoparticles
There are many active centers on the surface of nanoparticles, which provides the necessary conditions for nanoparticles to act as catalysts. At present, the catalytic reaction with nanoparticles can directly use nanoparticles such as platinum black, silver, alumina, iron oxide, etc., as catalysts in the oxidation, reduction, and synthesis reactions of high molecular polymers, which can greatly improve the reaction efficiency. There are many applications in magnetic materials. For example, Nanoparticles can be used as permanent magnet materials, magnetic recording materials, and magnetic fluid materials. High purity nanopowder can be used as a fine ceramic material. It has the ability to be hard, wear-resistant, high temperature resistant, and corrosion-resistant. And some ceramic materials have energy conversion and information transmission functions. Nanomaterials also have many applications in medicine and bioengineering. Targeted drugs using nano-magnetic materials as drug carriers have been successfully developed, called "biological missiles." That is, the drug is carried on the surface of the protein-coated with magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles, injected into the blood vessels of the human body, and delivered to the diseased part through magnetic field navigation to release the drug, which can reduce the side effects of the drug caused by the liver, spleen, and kidney.

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