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The structure, composition, and physical and chemical properties of Graphite

wallpapers News 2021-06-16
The structure, composition, and physical and chemical properties of Graphite
Graphite is an allotrope of carbon. It is a gray-black, opaque solid. It has stable chemical properties, is corrosion-resistant, and does not easily react with chemicals such as acids and alkalis. It burns in oxygen to generate carbon dioxide, which can be oxidized by strong oxidants such as concentrated nitric acid and potassium permanganate. It can be used as an anti-wear agent and lubricant. High-purity graphite is used as a neutron moderator in atomic reactors. It can also be used to make crucibles, electrodes, brushes, dry batteries, graphite fibers, heat exchangers, coolers, electric arc furnaces, Arc lights, pencil refills, etc.
Structure and composition
Graphite is a transition type crystal between atomic crystals, metal crystals, and molecular crystals. In the crystal, the carbon atoms in the same layer are sp2 hybridized to form a covalent bond. Each carbon atom is connected to three other carbon atoms, and the six carbon atoms form a regular hexagonal ring on the same plane, which stretches to form a lamellar structure. . The carbon atoms in the same plane also have a p-orbital each, which overlap each other to form a delocalized π-bond electron that can move freely in the lattice and can be excited, so graphite has a metallic luster, can conduct electricity and transfer heat.
The distance between each layer of graphite is 3.40Å, which is combined by van der Waals forces, that is, the layers are molecular crystals. The distance between carbon atoms in the same layer is 1.42Å, due to the carbon atoms on the same plane layer. The intermolecular bond is very strong and extremely difficult to break, so the melting point of graphite is also very high, and the chemical properties are also stable. In view of its special bonding method, it cannot be regarded as a single crystal or polycrystal alone. Now it is generally considered that graphite is a kind of mixed crystal.
Physical and chemical properties
Graphite is soft, dark gray, greasy, and can contaminate paper. The hardness is 1-2, and the hardness can increase to 3-5 with the increase of impurities in the vertical direction. The specific gravity is 1.9 to 2.3. The specific surface area is concentrated in the range of 1-20m2/g, and its melting point is above 3000 ℃ under the condition of oxygen isolation, which is one of the most temperature-resistant minerals. It can conduct electricity and heat.
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